Simon and Garfunkel once sang about “The Sound of Silence.” For individuals who experience varying forms of social aggression, bystanders contribute to the haunting echoes of inaction, communicating a lack of concern about (and perhaps even silent support for) the behaviors of bullies. Works in this section of NCA’s Anti-Bullying Project Digital Resource highlight the consequentiality of communication (or lack thereof) with regard to individuals who observe social aggression but fail to intervene, including possible strategies for inspiring and empowering bystanders to make a positive difference through the courage of communicating.


Brody, N. P. (2013). Bystander Intervention in Cyberbullying. Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin.

Dillon, K. P., & Bushman, B. J. (2015). Unresponsive or un-noticed?: Cyberbystander intervention in an experimental cyberbullying context. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 144-150.

Dillon, K. P. (2014). The unresponsive cyberbystander: A proposed cyberbystander intervention model of the mediated social forces inhibiting intervention online. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL.

Bowers, J. (2014). Understanding bystander behavior in cyberbullying encounters: An application of bystander apathy theory. Master’s thesis, Gonzaga University.